|Nototodarus gouldi and Nototodarus Sloanii|
|wheketere (Maori), short-finned squid, calamari (Australia), kalamari, teftis (Greece), kalmar (Germany), pota (Spain)|
Arrow squid caught by jigging is the best choice, ranked amber. Trawling in all areas is worst choice seafood and should be avoided.
Arrow squid is actually two species of squid. Both are very short lived (1 year) and range from surface depths down to 500 metres in coastal waters around New Zealand. Arrow squid are mainly caught off the South Island and the Auckland Islands, with most taken by midwater trawling and the rest caught by bottom trawling and jigging.
Arrow squid are caught by trawlers and jiggers. Absent information on state of stocks, absence of research, and lack of a management plan are concerns. In addition, two species are managed as one, there is an absence of basic biological information on squid, and no research programme focused on squid. The concerns over trawl-caught squid include the high number of threatened New Zealand sea lions, seabirds, fur seals and non-target fish killed as bycatch. Also of concern is the damage done to the seabed and associated species by bottom trawling. Both the Auckland Islands and Snares Shelf fishery capture sea lions, with mean estimates of 64 and 1 per year respectively. The actual level of impacts is uncertain, due to the use of sea lion exclusion devices (SLEDs) in the fishery. New Zealand sea lions are listed as nationally critical and the main breeding colonies have been in decline for over 15 years. The arrow squid trawl fishery captures over 400 seabirds per year with 60% of captures on the Stewart Snares Shelf and over 37% around Auckland Islands. For jig-caught squid there is no reported capture of New Zealand sea lions, seabirds or any other marine mammal. Jigs also do not impact on habitat and benthic species.
Not certified under any scheme.
Most arrow squid are exported frozen whole to China (25%), Greece (15%), South Korea (12%) and Australia (12%). Exports vary considerably between years and were worth about $40.8 million in 2015, which was well below the $104 million in 2010-11, a quarter the value of 2004.
Trawl caught and jig caught squid were assessed. Trawl-caught squid was assessed for the sub-Antarctic (SQU6T) fishery and the rest of New Zealand (1T). However, there was no significant difference between areas for squid caught by trawl: both rank as red, worst choice seafood. Jig-caught squid is a good seafood choice ranked amber.
|Score:||Both trawl (anywhere) and jig – D|
|Annual catch limit:||Set at 127,332 tonnes every year since 1997-98, but there have been in-season adjustments in Squid 1T to allow an additional catch of 10 to 30%. Jig caught squid is to be substantially reduced from 50,214 tonnes to 5,030 tonnes from 1 October 2016.|
|Recorded catch:||Reported landings of 16,310 tonnes in 2014-15 was about 12 % of the TACC set in all years since 1997-98 and the second lowest catch since 1986-1987; the lowest was in the previous year 2013-14.|
|Stock trends:||Unknown for all areas and species.|
|The Ministry of Primary Industries assessment plenary report includes:||“… it is not possible to estimate a long-term sustainable yield for squid, nor determine if recent catch levels or the current TACC [total allowable commercial catch] will allow the stock to move towards a size that will support the MSY [maximum sustainable yield].” (MPI, 2016, p68).|
|Distribution:||Nototodarus sloanii is found off the East Coast of the South Island and the Southern Plateau, while N. gouldi occurs in warmer waters off the East and West coasts of the North Island, south of the sub-tropical convergence.|
|Maximum age (years):||1|
|Size at sexual maturity:||22-30 cm (mantle length)|
|Reproductive output:||Very high|
|Age exploited:||Approximately 20cm (mantle length)|
|Ability to recover:||High|
|Score:||Both trawl areas – E, jig – A|
|Fishing method(s):||Approximately 30% are caught by bottom trawling, with the rest coming from midwater trawling and a small amount by squid jigging.|
rawl: Bottom trawling and midwater trawl gear fished near the seafloor damages the seabed. Bottom trawling bulldozes the sea floor, destroying complex biogenic structures including soft corals, sponges and long-lived bryozoans.
Jig: No benthic impact.
|Habitat of particular significance:||arrow squid hasn’t been defined in New Zealand.|
Trawl: Bycatch represents 20% of target catch and includes barracouta, spiny dogfish, and jack mackerel.
Jig: There are no bycatch issues associated with jigging.
|Ecological effects:||For trawl-caught squid, damage to seafloor habitats and removal of these important prey species can affect populations of larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals, including the nationally critical New Zealand sea lion. There are no ecological effects known from the current level of jigging.|
|Score:||Both trawl areas – E, jig – A|
Trawl: Globally threatened New Zealand sea lions, which have been in decline for over 15 years, New Zealand fur seals, albatross and petrels drown in trawl nets. The fishery also catches globally threatened basking sharks. It is estimated that over 400 seabirds are killed annually. The main species observed caught were white-capped, Salvin’s, and southern Buller’s albatross, sooty shearwater, and white-chinned petrels. The squid fishery made up 32% of white-capped albatross and 35% of sooty shearwater captures. The bottom trawl squid fishery also has bycatch of protected coral species.
Jig: protected or threatened seabird or marine mammal bycatch
|Score:||Sub-Antarctic trawl (6T) – C, rest of New Zealand trawl (1T) – B, jig – C|
|Management component:||Two species are being managed as one quota “species”. The stock structure of these species need further research|
|Score:||Both trawl areas – D, jig – E|
|Quota Management Species:||Yes, since 1988.|
|Management plan:||Deepwater management plan for 2010-15 is out of date, and has yet to be reviewed and replaced. Squid is outside the current plan and the plan lacks key environmental standards. The National Plans of Action on Seabirds and Sharks are more relevant to bycatch issues but they are slow to be implemented. Squid fished in 6T has an operational plan, which is now out of date and due to be reviewed. A threat management plan for New Zealand sea lions is being developed which could potentially impact on squid catch.|
|Stock assessment:||No quantitative assessment.|
|Research:||A 10-year planned deepwater research plan has been replaced (after 5 years) with an annual planning process with unclear commitments. There is little directed research on the squid fishery.|
|Observer coverage:||About 52% of trawl tows are observed. There has been no recent observer coverage in the jig fishery.|
Taken from the Ministry for Primary Industries’ Plenary report for fisheries management.
Report from the Fishery Assessment plenary, May 2016: stock assessments and yield estimates. Part 1: Introductory Section to Hoki, Science Group, Ministry for Primary Industries; Ministry for Primary Industries (2016) Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Annual Review 2015. Compiled by the Fisheries Management Science Team, Ministry for Primary Industries. 682p. The Guidebook to New Zealand Commercial Fish Species, 2007 Revised Edition, The New Zealand Seafood Industry Council Ltd. Seafood NZ, 2016. New Zealand Seafood Exports to December 2015. 133p; NZ SeaFIC website 2005. Annual Review Report for Deepwater Fisheries for 2014/15. MPI Technical Paper No: 2016/09. Prepared by the Ministry for Primary Industries. March 2016. 103p. S.J. Baird, D. Tracey, S. Mormede, M. Clark (2013) The distribution of protected corals in New Zealand waters. Prepared for DOC, February 2013. 96p. MFish (2010) National Fisheries Plan for Deep-Water and Middle-Depth Fisheries, 2010. 51p. Anderson, O. F. (2013) Fish and invertebrate bycatch and discards in New Zealand arrow squid fisheries from 1990-91 until 2010-11. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report 112. 62 p.