|Allocyttus niger (black oreo), Neocyttus rhomboidalis (spiky oreo), Pseudocyttus maculatus (smooth oreo)|
|New Zealand dory, black dory, smooth dory, spotted oreo, brown oreo, New Zealand smooth dory, deepwater dory, deepsea dory (Australia), teifsee-petersfisch (Germany), peterfisch (Switzerland), dore austral (France, Switzerland)|
Oreo or deepwater dory fish rank as worst choice seafood and should be avoided. A better alternative is pot caught.
Oreos are deepwater fish that are long-lived (up to 150 years) and slow growing, making them highly vulnerable to fishing pressure and overfishing. There are three commercial species in New Zealand, but they are all managed as one quota management species. They are predominantly found in deep waters off the east and south of the South Island and off the Chatham Islands.
Oreos are caught using bottom trawls. There are concerns over the management of the three oreo species as one, a declining stock trend in many areas, uncertainty over stock boundaries, lack of stock assessments in some areas, unknown sustainability of catch limits and absence of a management plan. Attempts to improve research in the oreo fishery have been hampered by funding due to the cost recovery regime. Also of great concern is the destructive impact of bottom trawling on vulnerable and sensitive marine habitats and a high level of non-target fish, deepwater shark and coral bycatch. Deepwater bottom trawl fisheries also catch an estimated 79 seabirds annually including Salvin’s, Chatham Islands and white-capped albatross.
Not certified under any scheme. An application to apply for MSC certification was withdrawn.
Key markets are China, Japan and Australia for black oreos and Germany, Australia and Spain for smooth oreos. Total exports were worth $13.6 million in 2015.
We assessed smooth and black oreos individually, although multiple species are managed together. There was no significant difference: both oreo species ranked as red, worst choice seafood and should be avoided.
|Score:||Both – D|
|Population size:||Estimates are uncertain but all assessed stock under 40%Bo.|
|Annual catch limit:||Limit set at 14,860 tonnes since 2009-10.|
|Recorded catch:||Reported landings of 11,059 tonnes in 2014-15, down from a peak of 26,514 tonnes in 1981-82 and 21,755 tonnes in 1996-97, including an over-catch of more than 3000 tonnes in OEO 4.|
|Stock trends:||Declining in most areas except smooth oreos in OEO 3A.|
|MSY Status:||Unknown for all areas except OEO 3A (smooth), OEO 4 (smooth), and Southland (OEO1/3A). Estimates are uncertain.|
|The Ministry of Primary Industries assessment plenary report includes:||
OEO 3A: Black oreo Unknown in relation to targets (40%Bo) and stock size.“Catch has decreased with TACC since the early 1990s and remained low and relatively constant over the last 10 years.”
OEO 3A: Smooth oreo “For the base case, B2009 was estimated at 36%B0, About as Likely as Not to be at or above the target.” “Biomass is projected to have been increasing since the late 1990s. The biomass is expected to increase over the next 5 years given the current catch limit of 1400 t.”
OEO 4: Black oreo The 2009 stock assessment of OEO 4 black oreo was considered unreliable. “CPUE has been stable for the last 5 years, after initial substantial decline during the 1980s and 1990s.”
OEO 4: Smooth oreo “B2013 was estimated at 27% B0 for the base case model. B2013 is Very Unlikely to be at or above the target. Biomass appears to be steadily decreasing.”
OEO 1/3A Southland: Smooth oreo “B2007 was estimated at 27% B0, Unlikely to be at or above the target. Biomass has been declining at a steady rate since the late 1980s.”
OEO 6 Pukaki Rise: Smooth oreo “Stock size and relation to targets in unknown.” Biomass is likely to have been declining since 1996.”
OEO 6 Pukaki Rise: Black oreo “Stock size and relation to targets in unknown.” “Biomass is likely to have been decreasing since the 1980s with a major decline starting about 1995.”
OEO6 Bounty Plateau: Smooth oreo “B2008 was estimated at 33% B0; Unlikely to be at or above the target. Biomass is estimated to have been decreasing rapidly since 1995.”
(MPI, 2016, p796-798, 810-812, 823-828, and 844-850).
|Score:||Both – E|
|Distribution:||Oreos occur around the south of New Zealand at depths of 600m to over 1000m.|
|Maximum age (years):|
|Age at sexual maturity:|
|Ability to recover:||Low to very low|
|Score:||Both – E|
|Fishing method(s):||Deepwater trawling, mainly on the south Chatham Rise, eastern Southland and sub-Antarctic plateau.|
|Habitat damage:||Bottom trawling destroys sea floor species assemblages and fragile seamount habitats. It decimates black coral, lace corals, colourful sponge fields, long-lived bryozoans and many other invertebrate species. Bottom trawl impacts include habitat modification, loss of biodiversity, loss of benthic productivity, modification of important breeding and juvenile fish habitat. The trawl footprint area and contact areas varies but the Snares Shelf area, the Auckland Islands shelf, West Coast South Island, and northwest and southwest Chatham Rise were identified as amongst the highest frequency trawled areas in the New Zealand zone.|
|Habitat of particular significance:||Hasn’t been defined in New Zealand.|
|Bycatch:||Main bycatch species are rattails, deepwater dogfish and hoki, with lesser bycatches of Johnson’s cod and ribaldo. Low productivity bycatch species include deepwater sharks.|
|Ecological effects:||Smooth and black oreos are a dominant species of demersal fish from 650-1200m depth on the south and south-west slope of the Chatham Rise, southern areas including Bounty Plateau and Pukaki Rise. Combined with the ecological effects of the closely associated orange roughy, the oreo fishery is responsible for considerable damage to seamounts, other vulnerable and sensitive marine habitats|
|Score:||All areas – D|
|Bycatch:||An estimated 79 seabirds are caught annually in deepwater (orange roughy, oreos and black cardinalfish) fisheries, including Salvin’s, Chatham Islands and white-capped albatross. This includes cryptic mortality of birds injured or killed when hitting trawl warps. Low numbers of fur seal captures (about 2 per year) were observed in the deepwater fishery. About 10% of tows include corals in bycatch. Orange roughy fisheries reported the largest coral captures. Protected coral species were reported caught in orange roughy tows in all orange roughy quota areas. The corals caught include gorgonian, hydrocorals, black corals (Antipatharia) and stony corals (Scleractinia) – which includes reef-like, tree-like, small corals and whip-like corals. In the 2014-15 fishing year core deepwater vessels’ observers reported capture of over 4.3 tonnes of corals and over 12.6 tonnes of sponges. Some of these corals have been aged at over 500 years old.|
|Score:||Both – E|
|Management component:||Three different species managed together as one when they should be managed independently. Likely stock boundaries cut across quota management areas.|
|Score:||Both – C|
|Quota Management Species:||Yes, since 1986|
|Management plan:||Deepwater management plan for 2010-15 is out of date, and has yet to be reviewed and replaced. Oreos are outside the current plan. There is no operational plan and the old Deepwater plan lacks key environmental standards. The National Plans of Action on Seabirds and Sharks are more relevant to bycatch issues but they are slow to be implemented.|
|Stock assessment:||Quantitative stock assessment in OEO 3A (Black – 2013 and Smooth – 2009), OEO 4 (Black – 2009, and Smooth 2014), OEO 1 Southland (Smooth 2007), OEO 6 – Pukaki Rise (Black 2013 and Smooth 2013), Bounty Plateau (Smooth 2008 and Black 2008) only.|
|Research:||Research has focused on OEO 3A and OEO 4.|
|Observer coverage:||Is 22.5% in the combined deepwater fishery.|